A condition that damages the optic nerve of the eye, glaucoma occurs due to a fluid build-up in the front portion of the eye. It increases the pressure, known as intraocular pressure, in the eyes thereby damaging the optic nerve. As there are no early symptoms of the disease hence, it is important to get regular eye checkups. Early detection is crucial to prevent the disease from causing permanent vision loss. People with a family history of glaucoma should have a regular annual eye check every year with an eye specialist.

January is Glucoma Awarness month.

Types of glaucoma

Given below are the different types of glaucoma.

Glaucoma suspect

The optic nerve of some people looks suspicious for glaucoma though they have normal eye pressure. These people must remain alert as some might eventually develop the disease. On the other hand, though eye pressure of some people is higher than the normal, they do not have other signs of glaucoma. The condition is known as ocular hypertension. However, these people too must go for a regular eye examination, as there are high chances for developing the disease.

Secondary glaucoma

This type of glaucoma results from other eye disease or condition such as eye injury, tumor or long-time steroid therapy. Common forms are neovascular glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma.

Congenital glaucoma

It is a rare type of glaucoma affecting infants and young children. It can be inherited and if not diagnosed early results in permanent blindness.

Angle-closure glaucoma

This type of glaucoma occurs when the iris is extremely close to the drainage angle of the eye. The iris blocks the drainage angle, thereby elevating eye pressure. The attack is acute and one must immediately visit an ophthalmologist. People suffering from farsightedness (hyperopia) are more vulnerable for developing this form of the disease.

Open-angle glaucoma

It is the most common form of glaucoma when the trabecular meshwork of the eye becomes less efficient in draining fluid thereby increasing eye pressure. Increase in eye pressure damages the optic nerve. This form of the disease has no symptoms at the early stages and the vision remains normal. As the optic nerve becomes more damaged, blank spots begin to appear.

Glaucoma Causes

The causes of glaucoma are:

Elevated eye pressure
Usage of steroid-containing medicines
Formation of abnormal blood vessel due to diabetes
Dispersion of pigment

Glaucoma Symptoms

Symptoms of the disease are as follows:

Blurry vision
Severe pain in the eyes

Glaucoma Treatment

The treatment of the disease depends on the nature and severity of the case. Glaucoma cannot be completely cured. However, it can be controlled. Eye drops, laser procedures, pills and surgical operations are used to slow down the effects of the disease. A regular eye examination is must to detect the disease's progression.

As a top eye surgeon in Kolkata, Dr Somdutt Prasad is well-versed in the treatment of the disease. Several glaucoma patients have benefited from the bespoke treatment offered at i4vision, a top-notch eye care clinic in Kolkata.